of Youth
  Copyright   Internet   Media
  Sex and   Censorship     Violence in   the Media

  About Us
  Contact Us
  Court and Agency Briefs
  Fact Sheets
  Policy Reports

Search FEPP

Special Projects
The Information Commons

Nancy Kranich
Senior Research Fellow
Free Expression Policy Project

April 2003

Agre, Philip. "Commodity and Community: Institutional Design for the Networked University." Planning for Higher Education 29, # 2 (Winter 2000-2001): 5-14.

American Library Association. Principles for the Networked World. Washington, DC: American Library Association, May 2002.

Andrews, William. "Nurturing the Global Information Commons: Public Access, Public Infrastructure." Presentation at the 4th Annual B.C. Information Policy Conference Vancouver, B.C., October 28, 1995.

Benkler, Yochai. "The Commons as a Neglected Factor of Information Policy." 26th Annual Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Oct 3-5, 1998.

Benkler, Yochai. "Free as the Air to Common Use: First Amendment Constraints on Enclosure of the Public Domain." New York University Law Review 74, #2 (May 1999): 354-364.

Benkler, Yochai. "From Consumers to Users: Shifting the Deeper Structures of Regulation Toward Sustainable Commons and User Access." Federal Communications Law Journal. 52, # 3 (May 2000): 561-579.

Benkler, Yochai. "Overcoming Agoraphobia: Building the Commons of the Digitally Networked Environment." Harvard Journal of Law and Technology. 11, # 2 (Winter 1998): 287-400.

Benkler, Yochai. "Property, Commons and the First Amendment: Toward a Core Common Infrastructure." A White Paper for the First Amendment Program of the Brennan Center for Justice at NYC School of Law, (March 2001).

Bollier, David. "Commons Sense: Community Ownership and the Displacement of Corporate Control." Multinational Monitor 23, nos. 7 & 8 (July/August 2002).

Bollier, David. "The Enclosure of the Academic Commons: Academic Research and Innovation Depend on Cooperation, Collaboration, and Sharing. What Happens to Academic Knowledge When Ideas Become Intellectual Property?" Academe 88, no. 5 (September-October 2002).

Bollier, David. "The Grotesque, Smirking Gargoyle: The Commercializing Of America's Consciousness,", August 8, 2002.

Bollier, David. Public Assets, Private Profits: Reclaiming the American Commons in an Age of Market Enclosure. Washington, DC: New America Foundation, 2001.

Bollier, David. "Rediscovery Of The Commons: Managing For The Common Good, Not Just For The Corporate Good.", July 25, 2002.

Bollier, David. "Ruled by the Market: Reclaiming the Commons." Boston Review 27, Nos. 3-4 (Summer 2002). Includes responses by Marcia Angell. "Public Health"; Robert W. McChesney. "The Place of Politics"; Tom W. Palmer. "Common Property?"; Nicholas Johnson. "A Useful Framework?"; Jeff Chester and Gary O. Larson. "Digital Democracy"; Richard D. Parker. "Rhetoric of the Commons"; Richard Stallman. "Intellectual Enclosure"; and Margaret Kohn. "The Cost of Community."

Bollier, David and Tim Watts. Saving the Information Commons: A New Public Interest Agenda in Digital Media. Washington, DC: New American Foundation and Public Knowledge, 2002.

Bollier, David. "Saving the Information Commons," Atlanta, GA: American Library Association conference panel on Piracy on the Commons, June 15, 2002.

Bollier, David. Silent Theft: The Private Plunder of Our Common Wealth. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Bollier, David. "Stopping The Privatization Of Public Knowledge: The Endangered Public Domain.", August 1, 2002.

Bollier, David. Why the Public Domain Matters: The Endangered Wellspring of Creativity, Commerce, and Democracy. Washington, DC: New American Foundation and Public Knowledge, 2002.

Boyle, James. "Fencing Off Ideas." Daedalus 131, no. 2 (April 2002): 13-25.

Boyle, James. "A Politics of Intellectual Property: Environmentalism for the Net?" Law in the Information Society.

Boyle, James. "The Second Enclosure Movement and the Construction of the Public Domain." paper presented at the Conference on the Public Domain, Duke University Law School, November 11, 2001,

Boyle, James. Shamans, Software, and Spleens: Law and the Construction of the Information Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard U. Press, 1996.

Boyte, Harry C. Commonwealth: A Return to Citizen Politics. New York: The Free Press, 1989.

Boyte, Harry C. and Sara M. Evans. Free Spaces: The Sources of Democratic Change in America. New York: Harper and Row, 1986, rev. ed. Chicago: U. of Chicago Press, 1992.

Brin, David. "The Internet as a Commons." in Milton T. Wolf, et. al. Information Imagineering: Meeting at the Interface. Chicago, IL: American Library Association, 1998: 240-245.

Center for Digital Democracy. "The Dot-Commons: A Virtual Tour of the Online Civic Sector." Washington, DC: Center for Digital Democracy.

Center for Digital Democracy. "The Dot-Commons Concept: Making the Internet Safe for Democracy." Washington, DC: Center for Digital Democracy.

Cohen, Julie E. Copyright and the Jurisprudence of Self-Help. Berkeley Technology Law Journal. 13, #3 (Fall 1998): 1089-1137.

Cohen, Julie E. Copyright and the Perfect Curve. Vanderbilt Law Review 53, #6 (November 2000): 1799-1819.

Cohen, Julie E. Lochner in Cyberspace: The New Economic Orthodoxy of "Rights Management." Michigan Law Review 97, #2 (November 1998): 462.

David, Paul, "A Tragedy of the Public Knowledge 'Commons'? Global Science, Intellectual Property and the Digital Technology Boomerang." Electronic Journal of Intellectual Property Rights. Oxford Intellectual Property Research Centre - Working and Seminar Papers, (September 2000).

Felsenstein, Lee. "The Commons of Information." Dr. Dobbs Journal, (May 1993): 18-24.

Friedland, Lew and Harry C. Boyte. "The New Information Commons: Community Information Partnerships and Civic Change." University of Minnesota Hubert Humphrey Institute, Center for Democracy and Citizenship, January 2000.

Grossman, Lawrence and Newton Minow, eds. A Digital Gift to the Nation: Fulfilling the Promise of the Digital and Internet Age. New York: The Century Foundation Press, 2001

Hardin, Garrett. "The Tragedy of the Commons." Science 162, # 3259 (December 13, 1968): 1243-48.

Hardt, Michael and Antonio Negri. Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard U. Press, 2000: 297-303.

Heins, Marjorie. "The Progress of Science and Useful Arts: Why Copyright Today Threatens Intellectual Freedom." New York: Free Expression Project, 2002 (interim report).

Heller, Michael A. and Rebecca S. Eisenberg. "Can Patents Deter Innovation? The
Anti-Commons in Biomedical Research." Science, 280, # 5364 (May 1, 1998): 698-701.

Hess, Charlotte and Elinor Ostrom. "Artifacts, Facilities and Content: Information as a Common-Pool Resource." paper presented at the Conference on the Public Domain, Duke University Law School, November 9-11, 2001,

Hess, Charlotte. "Capturing the Campus Commons: Response to Iain Boal's Article 'The Campus and the Commons.'" Common Property Resource Digest 46 (July/October 1998): 9-11.

Hess, Charlotte."Is There Anything New Under the Sun? A Discussion and Survey of Studies on New Commons and the Internet." Presented at "Constituting the Commons: Crafting Sustainable Commons in the New Millenium", the Eighth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Bloomington, Indiana, USA, May 31-June 4, 2000.

Holman, Joanne. 2000. "Electronic Information as a Commons: The Issue of Access." Presented at "Constituting the Commons: Crafting Sustainable Commons in the New Millenium", the Eighth Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Bloomington, Indiana, USA, May 31-June 4.

Kaul, Inge, Isabelle Grunberg, and Marc A. Stern. Global Public Goods: International Cooperation in the 21st Century. New York: Oxford University Press for The United Nations Development Program, 1999.

Kennedy, Donald. "Enclosing the Research Commons." Science 294, #5550 (Dec 14, 2001): 2,249.

Lange, David. "Recognizing the Public Domain." Law & Contemporary Problems 44, #147 (Autumn 1981): 147-166.

Lessig, Lawrence. Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace. New York: Basic Books, 1999.

Lessig, Lawrence. The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World. New York: Random House, 2001.

Lessig, Lawrence. Reclaiming a Commons. Cambridge, MA: Harvard U. Berkman Center Conference on Building a Digital Commons, May 20, 1999.

Levine, Peter. "Civic Renewal and the Commons of Cyberspace." National Civic Review 90, no. 3, (Fall 2001): 205-212.

Levine, Peter. "The Internet and Civil Society." The International Media and Democracy Project. July 11, 2002.

Levine, Peter. "'The Public Telecommunication Service' The University of Maryland's Civil Society/Community Building Initiative." March 2001.

Litman, Jessica. Digital Copyright. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Press 2001.

Litman, Jessica. "The Public Domain." Emory Law Journal 39, #4 (Fall 1990): 965-1009.

National Research Council. The Drama of the Commons, Edited by Elinor Ostrom, Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002.

Ostrom, Elinor. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Ostrom, Elinor. "Private and Common Property Rights." In the Encyclopedia of Law and Economics. Edited by Boudewijn Bouckaert and Gerrit De Geest. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 2000.

Reynolds, Dennis J., ed. Citizen Rights and Access to Electronic Information: The 1991 LITA President's Program Presentations and Background Papers. Chicago, IL: American Library Association/Library and Information Technology Association, 1992.

Robbins, Bruce, ed. The Phantom Public Sphere. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1993.

Rose, Carol M. "The Comedy of the Commons: Commerce, Custom, and Inherently Public Property." University of Chicago Law Review 53 (1986): 711.

Rose, Carol M. "Romans, Roads, And Romantic Creators: Traditions of Public Property in The Information Age." paper presented at the Conference on the Public Domain, Duke University Law School, November 9-11, 2001.

Schement, Jorge and Terry Curtis. Tendencies and Tensions of the Information Age: The Production and Distribution of Information in the United States. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1995.

Shapiro, Michael S. Copyright as Cultural Policy. Washington, DC: Center for Arts and Culture, 2001.

Seth Shulman. Owning the Future. Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin, 1999.

Shulman, Seth. Trouble on "The Endless Frontier:" Science, Invention and the Erosion of the Technological Commons. Washington, DC: New America Foundation and Public Knowledge, 2002.

Starr, Paul. "The Electronic Commons." American Prospect. 11, no. 10, (March 27, 2000).

Stiglitz, Joseph E. "Knowledge as a Global Public Good." in Inge Kaul, et. al. Global Public Goods: International Cooperation in the 21st Century. New York: Oxford University Press for The United Nations Development Program, 1999: 308-325.

Vaidhyanathan, Siva. Copyrights and Copywrongs: The Rise of Intellectual Property and How It Threatens Creativity. New York: NYU Press, 2001.

Vaidhyananthan, Siva. "The Content-Provider Paradox: Universities in the Information Ecosystem." Academe. 88, no. 5 (September-October 2002).

Venturelli, Shalini. From the Information Economy to the Creative Economy: Moving Culture to the Center of International Public Policy. Washington, DC: Center for Arts and Culture, 2001.

Waters, Donald. "Good Archives Make Good Scholars: Reflections on Recent Steps Toward the Archiving of Digital Information." in The State of Digital Preservation: An International Perspective. Washington DC: Council on Library and Information Resources, 2002.



The Free Expression Policy Project began in 2000 as a project of the National Coalition Against Censorship, to provide empirical research and policy development on tough censorship issues and seek free speech-friendly solutions to the concerns that drive censorship campaigns. In 2004-2007, it was part of the Brennan Center for Justice at NYU School of Law. Past funders have included the Robert Sterling Clark Foundation, the Nathan Cummings Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, the Educational Foundation of America, the Open Society Institute, and the Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts.

All material on this site is covered by a Creative Commons "Attribution - No Derivs - NonCommercial" license. (See You may copy it in its entirely as long as you credit the Free Expression Policy Project and provide a link to the Project's Web site. You may not edit or revise it, or copy portions, without permission (except, of course, for fair use). Please let us know if you reprint!